Amaranth oil


Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension

Author: Danik M Martirosyan, Lidia A Miroshnichenko, Svetlana N Kulakova, Ala V Pogojeva, Vladimir I Zoloedov

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the Nation's leading killer for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Development and progression of CVD is linked to the presence of risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. It is known that cholesterol is an indicator of increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Low-density cholesterol (LDL) above 130 mg/dl high-density cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol below 35 mg/dl and total blood cholesterol above 200 mg/dl are indicators of problematic cholesterol. Proper ranges of cholesterol are important in the prevention of CVD.

It has been suggested that a reduction in the consumption of saturated and an increase in unsaturated fatty acids is beneficial and prevents CVD. Amaranth grain contains tocotrienols and squalene compounds, which are known to affect cholesterol biosynthesis. The cholesterol precursors squalene, lanosterol and other methyl sterols, reflect cholesterol synthesis [1-3], whereas plant sterols and cholestanol, a metabolite of cholesterol, reflect the efficiency of cholesterol absorption in normal and hyperlipidemic populations [4-6].

Qureshi with co-authors [7] showed that feeding of chickens with amaranth oil decreases blood cholesterol levels, which are supported by the work of others [8]. Previously, we have shown that Amaranth oil modulates the cell membrane fluidity [9] and stabilized membranes that could be one reason as to why it is beneficial to those who consume it. It is known that in hypertension, the cell membrane is defective and hence, the movement of the Na and K ions across the cell membranes could defective that could contribute to the development of increase in blood pressure. Based on these properties of amaranth oil we hypothesize that it could be of significant benefit for patients with CVD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1779269/

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Amaranth and Its Oil Inhibit- Cholesterol Biosynthesis in 6-Week-Old Female Chicken

Author: Asaf A. Qureshi, James W. Lehmann, David M. Peterson

Abstract

All amaranth varieties contain tocotrienols and squalene compounds which are known to affect cholesterol biosynthesis. Therefore, in the present study, the influence of dietary supplementation of whole seed, popped, and milled amaranth and amaranth oil on cholesterogenesis was studied in 6-wk-old female chickens. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were lowered 10-30% and 7-70% (P < 0.01), respectively, in birds fed amaranth-containing diets. HDL-cholesterol was not affected by amaranth supplementation. Activities of liver cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (the enzyme responsible for cholesterol breakdown into bile acids) were 10-18% higher (P < 0.01) than those of controls for birds fed most forms of amaranth and its oil, whereas activities of liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis) were lowered by about only 9% (P < 0.01) by popped, milled amaranth and its oil. This lack of marked inhibition of this enzyme suggests the presence of some other potent cholesterol inhibitor(s) apart from tocotrienols and squalene in amaranth.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8759369

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Synthesis and Characterization of a Structured Lipid from Amaranth Oil as a Partial Fat Substitute in Milk-Based Infant Formula

Author: Ashanty M. Pina-Rodriguez, Casimir C. Akoh

Abstract

The aim of this study was to use enzymatic interesterification techniques to modify underutilized amaranth oil as a structured lipid (SL) by increasing its palmitic acid content at the sn-2 position and incorporating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This SL can be partially or complementarily used in milk-based infant formulas to deliver a lipid component similar to that in breast milk. Amaranth oil was modified by enzymatic interesterification in two stages. First, the palmitic acid content was increased specifically at the sn-2 position to resemble breast milk triacylglycerols (TAGs) using Novozym 435 lipase. Then DHA was incorporated, mainly at the sn-1,3 positions using Lipozyme RM IM, a sn-1,3 specific lipase. An optimization model was developed to determine the exact parameter combinations to incorporate a specific amount of DHA (1.0-2.5%). The model suggestions were used for a gram-scale interesterification to yield the expected product. The final SL composition was as follows: palmitic acid, 33.9%; stearic acid, 2.8%; oleic acid, 23.3%; linoleic acid, 37.3%; linolenic acid, 0.7%; and docosahexaenoic acid, 1.9%. The original amaranth oil and the final SL were characterized by determining the fatty acid composition, melting profile, chemical characteristics, oxidative stability (peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values), and phytosterol, tocopherol, and squalene contents. The physical and chemical characteristics determined in this study support the potential application of DHA-containing customized amaranth oil (DCAO) as a partial fat substitute or complement for milk-based infant formula. Research on the application and stability of this SL used in an infant formula is being conducted.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586027

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Composition and Oxidative Stability of a Structured Lipid from Amaranth Oil in a Milk-Based Infant Formula

Author: Ashanty M. Pina-Rodriguez, Casimir C. Akoh

Abstract

Amaranth oil can be enzymatically modified to match breast milk fat analog requirements. We have developed a structured lipid (SL) from amaranth oil that, in combination with milk fat, delivers recommended amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with palmitic acid specifically esterified at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone. The aim of this study was to study the final fatty acid (FA) contribution and oxidation stability of an infant formula prepared using the structured lipid DCAO (DHA-containing customized amaranth oil). DCAO was included as complementary fat in a "prototype" infant formula, and prepared in parallel with a "control" infant formula under the same processing conditions. The same ingredients but different complementary fat sources were used. A blend of the most commonly used vegetable oils (palm olein, soybean, coconut, and high-oleic sunflower oils) for infant formula was used instead of DCAO in the "control" formula. Additionally, "prototype" and "control" infant formulas were compared to a "commercial" product in terms of FA composition. The oxidative stability index (OSI) of the extracted fats from "prototype,""control," and "commercial" infant formulas were evaluated and compared to the OSI of the substrate fat replacers used. DCAO was the least stable compared to other fat analogs. The use of commercial antioxidants in DCAO containing products should prevent oxidation and therefore increase their stability.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20492217

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Enrichment of Amaranth Oil with Ethyl Palmitate at the sn-2 Position by chemical and Enzymatic Synthesis

Author: Ashanty M. Pina-Rodriguez, Casimir C. Akoh

Abstract

Amaranth oil is rich in linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids. Structured lipids (SLs) with specific functional and nutritional characteristics can be prepared through chemical or enzymatic interesterification. The aim of this study was to increase the palmitic acid content at the sn-2 position in amaranth oil triacylglycerols (TAG) for possible use in infant formula. Chemical and enzymatic interesterification techniques were assessed before selecting the latter for further optimization modeling. Enzymatic interesterification of ethyl palmitate and amaranth oil significantly increased the total content of palmitic acid, reduced linoleic acid content, and increased the amount of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position of the SL product. Even though amaranth oil content of palmitic acid (18.3%) was originally similar to that in breast milk (18.3-25.9%), the structural changes induced through enzymatic modification resulted in a SL closely resembling breast milk fat and hence its possible application as a fat substitute for infant nutrition. A second-order polynomial model was developed to predict the amount of total palmitic acid incorporated when reaction time and substrate level were manipulated, and to optimize the combination of parameters to achieve specific palmitic acid contents in amaranth oil. The resulting model is useful to develop an SL from amaranth oil enriched with palmitic acid specifically at the sn-2 position for possible application in infant formulas.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19413361

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Structured Lipid From Underutilized Amaranth Oil For Possible Application In Infant Formula

Author: Ashanty M. Pina-Rodriguez, Casimir C. Akoh

Abstract

The aim of this study was to use enzymatic interesterification techniques to modify underutilized amaranth oil as a structured lipid (SL) by increasing its palmitic acid content at the sn-2 position and incorporating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This SL can be partially or complementarily used in milk-based infant formulas to deliver a lipid component similar to that in breast milk. Amaranth oil was modified by enzymatic interesterification in two stages. First, the palmitic acid content was increased specifically at the sn-2 position to resemble breast milk triacylglycerols (TAGs) using Novozym 435 lipase. Then DHA was incorporated, mainly at the sn-1,3 positions using Lipozyme RM IM, a sn-1,3 specific lipase. An optimization model was developed to determine the exact parameter combinations to incorporate a specific amount of DHA (1.0-2.5%). The model suggestions were used for a gram-scale interesterification to yield the expected product. The final SL composition was as follows: palmitic acid, 33.9%; stearic acid, 2.8%; oleic acid, 23.3%; linoleic acid, 37.3%; linolenic acid, 0.7%; and docosahexaenoic acid, 1.9%. The original amaranth oil and the final SL were characterized by determining the fatty acid composition, melting profile, chemical characteristics, oxidative stability (peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values), and phytosterol, tocopherol, and squalene contents. The physical and chemical characteristics determined in this study support the potential application of DHA-containing customized amaranth oil (DCAO) as a partial fat substitute or complement for milk-based infant formula. Research on the application and stability of this SL used in an infant formula is being conducted.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586027

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Characteristics of Biologically-Active Substances of Amaranth Oil Obtained by Various Techniques

Author: Sylwester Czaplicki, Dorota Ogrodowska, Ryszard Zadernowski, Dorota Derewiaka

Abstract

Amaranth seeds and their main product amaranth oil are a rich source of bioactive substances. The non-saponifiable substances which accompany lipids include: squalene, tocopherols, sterols and others. The aim of the study was to compare the content of squalene, tocopherols and phytosterols in amaranth oils obtained by various techniques. The oil was extracted from seeds (Amaranthus cruentus) with the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), extraction with a chloroform/methanol mixture and expeller pressing. Contents of squalene and tocopherols were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The content of sterols in oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
The highest squalene content was found for the oil obtained as a result of supercritical CO2 extraction (6.95 g/100 g of oil). A lower content of squalene was noted in the oil extracted with organic solvents and in cold-pressed oil - 6.00 and 5.74 g/100 g of oil, respectively. The amaranth oils were characterised by a significant content of tocopherols. The oil obtained as a result of fluid extraction was characterised by the highest content of tocopherols (131.7 mg/100 g of oil). A dominating homologue (40%) was β-tocopherol. Also the same sample was characterised by the highest content of sterols (2.49 g/100 g of oil). In all samples the predominating sterol was sum of α-spinasterol and sitosterol, which accounted for 45%, 56% and 53% of total analysed sterols for the oil obtained from SFE, from extraction with solvents and from cold pressing, respectively.

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/232251547_Characteristics_of_Biologically-Active_Substances_of_Amaranth_Oil_Obtained_by_Various_Techniques

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Redox Modulation by Amaranth Oil in Human Lung Fibroblasts

Author: Bast A, Semen KO, den Hartog GJM, Kaminskyy DV, Sirota TV, Maij NGAA, Yelisyeyeva OP

Abstract

Amaranth oil has several health benefits. It has lipid lowering, anti-diabetic, immune modulatory and cytoprotective properties, activates the function of mitochondria and improves heart rate variability. It has been suggested that the effect of amaranth oil on redox status is involved in this multitude of cellular and clinical influences of the oil. We examined whether amaranth oil can modify free radical production. EPR experiments with amaranth oil dissolved in DMSO showed scavenging of carbon centered radicals but not of oxygen centered radicals. Moreover, a concentration dependent scavenging effect of amaranth oil on ultrasound-induced radicals was observed. However, in adrenaline autoxidation experiments amaranth oil showed a strong prooxidant action through activation of superoxide anion formation. This two-sided effect of amaranth oil, i.e. both anti- and pro-oxidant action, was corroborated in human lung fibroblasts that were exposed to amaranth oil. At low concentrations of amaranth oil, fibroblasts were protected against oxidative stress, whereas in incubations with high amaranth oil concentrations more H2O2-induced intracellular radical damage was found. We suggest that mild pro-oxidant activity could be the underlying mechanism in the health beneficial effect of amaranth oil.

http://esciencecentral.org/journals/redox-modulation-by-amaranth-oil-in-human-lung-fibroblasts-2329-6836.1000122.php?aid=22143

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Amaranth Flour


Effect of enzymes on the dough properties and bread quality of wheat flour partly substituted for amaranth flour

Author: Sang Ha Park, Naofumi Morita

Abstract

The commercial hard wheat flour, Cameria replaced by amaranth flour (20%), was tested for its dough properties and baking qualities including sensory evaluation. The loaf volumes of bread baked with 5%, 10% and 20% of amaranth flour substitution were 94%, 89% and 83%, respectively, of the control (wheat only). Additions of lipase (2,250 units/kg of flour) and hemicellulase (1×104 units/kg of flour) to the 10%-amaranth flour-substituted wheat flour increased the loaf volumes about 18% and 23%, respectively, over the control. The firmness of bread-crumbs baked from 10%-amaranth flour-substituted wheat flour added with lipase, hemicellulase, or both of them after storage for three days became significantly softer than that of the control. Farinograph data showed the increase of water absorption, arrival time and weakness in proportion to the increase of amaranth flour substitution. Viscoelastic parameters of dough, such as modulus of elasticity and viscosity coefficient increased in proportion to the increase of amaranth flour substituted for wheat flour. Pasting properties of starch prepared from 10%-amaranth flour-substituted wheat dough with the addition of lipase, hemicellulase or both decreased setback and peak viscosity. Amaranth flour contained a higher amount of alkaline-insoluble protein than wheat flour. Sensory test of 10%-amaranth flour-substituted wheat bread did not show significant improvement compared to the control. However, the bread baked with lipase was preferred by most of the panel members to the control, except for its color.

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/fstr/10/2/10_2_127/_article

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Effects of processing methods on amaranth starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index

Author: V.D. Capriles, K.D. Coelho, A.C. Guerra-Matias, J.A.G. Areas

Abstract

Amaranth has attracted a great deal of interest in recent decades due to its valuable nutritional, functional, and agricultural characteristics. Amaranth seeds can be cooked, popped, roasted, flaked, or extruded for consumption. This study compared the in vitro starch digestibility of processed amaranth seeds to that of white bread. Raw seeds yielded rapidly digestible starch content (RDS) of 30.7% db and predicted glycemic index (pGI) of 87.2, the lowest among the studied products. Cooked, extruded, and popped amaranth seeds had starch digestibility similar to that of white bread (92.4, 91.2, and 101.3, respectively), while flaked and roasted seeds generated a slightly increased glycemic response (106.0 and 105.8, respectively). Cooking and extrusion did not alter the RDS contents of the seeds. No significant differences were observed among popped, flaked, and roasted RDS contents (38.0%, 46.3%, and 42.9%, respectively), which were all lower than RDS content of bread (51.1%). Amaranth seed is a high glycemic food most likely because of its small starch granule size, low resistant starch content (< 1%), and tendency to completely lose its crystalline and granular starch structure during those heat treatments.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18803711

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Nutrition value and use of grain amaranth- potential future application in bread making

Author: Silva Grobelnik Mlakar, Matjaž Turinek, Manfred Jakop, Martina Bavec, Franc Bavec

Abstract

Due to described agricultural advantages, unique nutritional properties and versatile usage, grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) has gained increased attention since 1970s when it has been re-discovered. The present paper briefly describes crop importance, botany and chemical composition, including new findings on nutritive value and properties of grain amaranth processed as food. Especially the rheological properties of composite flours containing amaranth and their suitability for making fortified bread are discussed. According to the information obtained in the scope of a national research project, grain amaranth is recognised as a perspective crop suitable for production of highly nutritive food and feed also under our conditions.

http://www.agricultura-online.com/portal/issues/issue-10/109-nutrition-value-and-use-of-grain-amaranth-potential-future-application-in-bread-making

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Quality of Spaghetti Containing Buckwheat, Amaranth, and Lupin Flours

Author: P. Rayas-Duarte, C.M. Mock, L.D. Satterlee

Abstract

Light and dark buckwheat, amaranth, and lupin flours were substituted for extra fancy and fancy durum wheat flours at 5, 15, 25, and 30% to produce multigrain pastas. The samples were analyzed for color, cooked weight, firmness, cooking loss (total solids) and total carbohydrate loss in the cooking water, in vitro protein digestibility, lysine content, and sensory attributes. Color scores of spaghetti containing light buckwheat and amaranth decreased as the substitution level increased. Color scores of dry spaghetti containing lupin remained constant at all substitution levels (10.3 average). The optimum cooking time of spaghetti was similar in all samples, about 11.3 min. The majority of the samples exhibited acceptable cooked weights of about three times the dry weight. The cooking loss ranged from 7.2 to 8.0%, significantly higher than that of the controls but still at acceptable levels. Samples containing dark buckwheat and amaranth showed significantly lower firmness values than the control durum-flour spaghettis. Total carbohydrate in the cooking water was independent of substitution level within a flour. Samples in which amaranth was substituted for durum showed the highest total carbohydrate in the water (2.7%), and those with lupin showed the lowest (1.2%). Lupin-containing spaghetti showed higher in vitro protein digestibility content (86.4%) than did the controls and the other composite samples (averages 85.5 and 84.3%, respectively). The lysine content increased as the substitution level increased, and lupin containing spaghetti showed the highest lysine values (average 3.2 g/l00 g of protein). Sensory evaluation showed that changes in texture and flavor were detected at 30% light buckwheat, 15% dark buckwheat, 25% amaranth, and 15% lupin. The results showed that multigrain pasta can be produced with higher levels of lysine than commercial pasta made of 100% durum wheat flour and also with acceptable cooking quality and sensory attributes.

http://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1996/Documents/73_381.pdf

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Rheological Properties of Dough Made from GrainAmaranth-Cereal Composite Flours Basedon Wheat and Spelt

Author: Silva Grobelnik Mlakar, Matjaž Turinek, Martina Bavec, Franc Bavec

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of amaranth wholegrain flour on the rheological characteristics of wheat and spelt flour dough. Organically produced composite flours made from basic flours of wheat (refined) or spelt (refined, wholegrain) and amaranth flour in the propositions of 10%, 20%, and 30% (flour basis) were compared to cereal flours. Dough was analysed for its amylographic, farinographic and extensographic properties. The amaranth substitution altering of the examined measures relates to a certain extent to the properties of the basic flour used. By increasing the amaranth replacement ratio, the gelatinisation temperature, water absorption, development time, and stability increased whereas the dough softening was only slight. The amaranth addition strengthened the dough, mainly by decreasing its extensibility and, in spelt containing composite flours, also by increasing the resistance to extension. Considering the results obtained and the characteristics of the basic flour used, the amaranth substitution of 10-20% evidently improves some rheological properties and strengthens the dough. The present study provides the first report on the spelt-amaranth blends and dough extensograph behaviour of amaranth composite flours.

http://cabdirect.org/abstracts/20093320624.html

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Amaranth General


Amaranth: Perspective Raw Material For Food-Processing And Pharmaceutical Industry

Author: Еvgeny N. Ofitserov

Abstract

Chemical composition of a new plant for Russia amaranth and its perspective use have been discussed. Amaranth contains a unique protein composition, starch with granule size not  less than 1 micron, vitamins (A, B, C, Е, Р), carotinoids, substantial amounts of pectin, micro- and macroelements, calcium in great quantities, highly unsaturated oil, having squalene in its content (up to 8 %) and a number of other bioactive substances. The role of these substances in functioning of organism and their use in non-conventional medicine have been discussed in brief. 

http://chem.kstu.ru/butlerov_comm/vol2/cd-a2/data/jchem&cs/english/n5/pdf/1-4.pdf

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Nutritional Value for Young Children of Grain Amaranth and Maize-Amaranth Mixtures: Effect of Processing

Author: Enrique Morales, Jorge Lembcke, George G. Graham

Abstract

Amaranthus caudatus L. toasted flour, popped grain and flakes were each fed to nine young children as the source of all diet protein and fat and 50% of diet energy, preceded and followed by casein control diets. All provided 6.4-6.7% of energy as protein and 9.3-10.1% as fat. Balances were carried out during the last 6 d of the three 9-d amaranth periods and during the four control periods. Fecal wet and dry weights during amaranth diets were 129-157% of those during casein control diets; fecal energy, fat and carbohydrate from the toasted flour periods were 193, 268 and 256%; from the popped grain 253, 586 and 195%; and from the flakes 225, 356 and 255% of those during casein diets. Apparent N absorptions were 84.1-84.6% of the casein values (P less than 0.001); apparent retentions from toasted, popped and flaked amaranth were 70.9, 65.9 and 59.0% of casein (P less than 0.001). The last of these was significantly lower than the first (P less than 0.05). Fecal fat was much higher (P less than 0.001) from the popped than from the flaked grain and the toasted flour. Toasted flour was then added to maize meal so that amaranth provided 20 or 30% of the protein. Seven young children received diets in which 6.4% of total energy came from one of the above mixes, or from casein, as protein. Soya-cottonseed oils completed 25% lipid energy in all three diets; balance of energy was from sucrose in the experimental diets and from sucrose, corn syrup solids and cornstarch in the casein diet.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3335942

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Protein quality evaluation of amaranth in adult humans

Author: R. Bressani, E. C. M. De Martell, C. M. De Godínez

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the nutritional quality of the protein of amaranth grain submitted to extrusion and popping processes, using cheese protein as reference. For the biological evaluation, the short-term nitrogen balance index method was followed with 12 experimental adult male human subjects. A Latin square series 3×3 was used (three periods, three subjects) as an experimental design balanced to minimize residual effects by randomly ordering treatments, columns and rows. The study consisted of three periods of nine days each.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01087917


Nutritive value and chemical composition of pseudocereals as gluten-free ingredients.

Author: Alvarez-Jubete, Arendt EK, Gallagher E.

Abstract

The only treatment available for patients with coeliac disease is a lifelong elimination of food products containing gluten. The gluten-free products currently available in the market are considered of low quality and poor nutritional value. In the present study, the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were studied as potential healthy ingredients for improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free breads. The pseudocereal seeds and pseudocereal-containing gluten-free breads were evaluated in terms of their protein, fat, total starch, dietary fibre, ash and mineral content as well as their fatty acid composition. The pseudocereal containing gluten-free breads showed significantly higher levels of protein, fat, fibre and minerals than the control bread. The attributes of these breads conform to the expert's nutritional recommendations for the gluten-free diet and gluten-free foods. These results suggest that the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat can represent a healthy alternative to frequently used ingredients in gluten-free products.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19462323


Nutritional Components of Amaranth Seeds and Vegetables - A Review on Composition, Properties, and Uses.

Author: Petras R. Venskutonis, Paulius Kraujalis

Abstract

A few decades ago Amaranthus was rediscovered as a most promising plant genus that may provide high-quality protein, unsaturated oil, and various other valuable constituents. Since then research has focused on various Amaranthus spp. and has been rapidly expanding, and a large number of reports have been published. Several review articles focusing on different aspects, such as botanical, agrotechnological, compositional, biological, chemical, and technological properties, as well as applications and health effects, have also been published since then. This comprehensive review is focused on amaranth composition, antioxidant properties, applications, and processing. The composition includes macrocomponets (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber) and other important constituents, such as squalene, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, phytates, and vitamins. These aspects of amaranth studies have not been comprehensively reviewed for a long time.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1541-4337.12021/abstract

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Amaranthus: A crop to rediscover

Author: Vera Anucarelli, Gigliola Camaggio

Abstract

Mother Nature supplies human kind with a wide array of edible species, although humans do not take advantage of all of them. Grains make up more than 80% of the world food supply, and unfortunately it has been reported that per capita grain production has been declining for the past 23 years. This suggests that an increasing amount of agricultural resources will be required to satisfy human nutritional needs. The studying of ancient population eating patterns and habits demonstrated that a large number of crops have been abandoned since centuries no matter if they were a simple growing valid source of high nutritional food and high biological compounds.

One of these ancient crops is Amaranth. Due to its agronomic and nutritional properties as well as its richness in bioactive compounds, this crop could represent an interesting option in order to increase alternative source of protein with high biological value, good quality starch, gluten-free products and squalene. The objective of this paper is to describe amaranth main botanical, physical and nutritional properties to illustrate amaranth potentialities in the food and no food sector.

http://forumware.wu-wien.ac.at/archiv/1364801634.pdf

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Comparison between isoelectric precipitation and ultrafiltration processes to obtain Amaranth mantegazzianus protein concentrates at pilot plant scale

Author: Virginia Castel, Oscar Andrich, Flavia M. Netto, Liliana G. Santiago, Carlos R. Carrara

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare protein yield, protein concentration and physicochemical characteristics of Amaranth mantegazzianus protein concentrates (APC) obtained at pilot-scale by a conventional process (CP) (alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation) and two alternative processes (AP): (1) acid pre-treatment process combined with isoelectric precipitation and (2) acid pre-treatment process combined with ultrafiltration. Although AP resulted in higher protein concentration, protein yield was lower than in CP. SDSPAGE and size-exclusion chromatography showed high molecular weight fractions only for isoelectric precipitation concentrates (obtained by CP and AP). The amino acids concentration, especially phenylalanine, isoleucine and methionine, increased in all protein concentrates respect to the amaranth flour. Particularly, the product obtained by ultrafiltration was rich in phenylalanine and lysine, and presented no limiting amino acid with respect to the recommendation of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

In conclusion, process (2) improved protein concentration and nutritional quality (balanced amino acid composition) of A. mantegazzianus protein concentrates respect to CP and process (1), suggesting that the ultrafiltration process is a viable alternative to conventional process and a promising method for obtaining protein concentrates.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260877412002312

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Identification and quantitation of major carotenoids in selected components of the Mediterranean diet- green leafy vegetables, figs and olive oil

Author: Q Su, KG Rowley, C Itsiopoulos, K ODea

Abstract

To characterize the carotenoid content of selected components of the Mediterranean diet commonly eaten by Greek migrants to Melbourne, a population group maintaining a traditional dietary regimen, and who exhibit relatively high circulating carotenoid concentrations and low cardiovascular disease mortality. DESIGN AND SPECIMENS: Opportunistic sampling of wild (sow thistle, amaranth, purslane and dandelion, collected from roadsides and home gardens) and commercially available (chicory, endive) green leafy vegetables and figs in season. Foods were selected on the basis that they are commonly eaten by Greek migrants but not by Anglo-Celtic persons, and had not previously been well-characterized with respect to their carotenoid contents. Extra virgin, cold-pressed olive oil and 'extra light' olive oil were obtained from commercial sources. Specimens were extracted with tetrahydrofuran (or chloroform:methanol for olive oil) and carotenoid contents were quantified using HPLC with UV detection. Two to six specimens of greens and figs were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12428183

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Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of different streams resulting from pilot-plant processes to obtain Amaranthus mantegazzianus protein concentrates

Author: Virginia Castel, Oscar Andrich, Flavia M. Netto, Liliana G. Santiago, Carlos R. Carrara

Abstract

Antioxidant properties of different pilot-plant process streams to obtain Amaranthus mantegazzianus protein concentrates (APC) were evaluated. Conventional process (CP) (alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation) and two alternative processes (APs): (1) acid pre-treatment stage combined with isoelectric precipitation and (2) acid pre-treatment stage combined with ultrafiltration were applied at pilot-plant scale to obtain APC. Methanol and water extracts of APC and other fractions obtained in the processes were evaluated by FolinCiocalteau method in order to determine total phenolic content and by DPPH radical scavenging activity method to determine antioxidant activity. Acid pre-treatment stage and ultrafiltration caused an effective removal of phenolic compounds yielding on the one hand APC with lower phenolic content than the ones obtained by CP. On the other hand, the acid extract and the whey obtained presented high phenolic content and antioxidant activity and could be used as additives to increased this parameters in food.

Finally, evaluated processes could be used to obtain several products (concentrates, whey, extracts) with different phenolic content and antioxidant activity suitable for different applications in food industry.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260877413004457

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Amaranth Grain & Vegetable Types

Author: G. Kelly OBrien, Dr. Martin L. Price

Abstract

Amaranth [Amaranthus hypochondriacus, A. cruentus (Grain type) & A. tricolor (Vegetable type)] is an herbaceous annual with upright growth habit, cultivated for both its seeds which are used as a grain and its leaves which are used as a vegetable or green. Both leaves and seeds contain protein of an unusually high quality. The grain is milled for flour or popped like popcorn. The leaves of both the grain and vegetable types may be eaten raw or cooked. Amaranths grown principally for vegetable use have better tasting leaves then the grain types.

Originating in the Americas and Europe, amaranth has been cultivated for more than 8,000 years, dating back at least to the Mayan civilization of South and Central America. It was a staple of the Aztecs and was incorporated Amaranth incorporated into their religious ceremonies. In the 1500s the Spanish conquistadors prohibited amaranth production. In that area today only a limited amount of amaranth grain is grown, most of which is popped and mixed with honey to make a confection called, "alegría." However, much of the genetic base has been maintained there because amaranth has continued to grow as a wildflower.

http://www.echocommunity.org

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Squalene


Methods for Obtaining and Determination of Squalene from Natural Sources

Author: Ovidiu Popa, Narcisa Elena Băbeanu, Ioana Popa, Sultana Niță, and Cristina Elena Dinu-Pârvu

Abstract

Squalene is a natural dehydrotriterpenic hydrocarbon (C30H50) with six double bonds, known as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phytosterol or cholesterol in plants or animals. We have briefly reviewed the natural sources for squalene and focused on the main methods and techniques to obtain and to determine it. Some of its applications in different fields of human activity are also mentioned.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/367202/

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Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related Compounds- Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology

Author: Zih-Rou Huang, Yin-Ku Lin, Jia-You Fang

Abstract

Squalene is a triterpene that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. It was so named because of its occurrence in shark liver oil, which contains large quantities and is considered its richest source. However, it is widely distributed in nature, with reasonable amounts found in olive oil, palm oil, wheat-germ oil, amaranth oil, and rice bran oil. Squalene, the main component of skin surface polyunsaturated lipids, shows some advantages for the skin as an emollient and antioxidant, and for hydration and its antitumor activities. It is also used as a material in topically applied vehicles such as lipid emulsions and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). Substances related to squalene, including β-carotene, coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) and vitamins A, E, and K, are also included in this review article to introduce their benefits to skin physiology. We summarize investigations performed in previous reports from both in vitro and in vivo models.

http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/14/1/540

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The importance and perspective of plant-based squalene in cosmetology

Author: Katarzyna Wołosik, Anna Zalewska, Marek Niczyporuk, Adrian Wojciech Przystupa

Abstract

Squalene is a highly unsaturated hydrocarbon from triterpenoid family, discovered as a major component of the liver oil of certain varieties of deep sea sharks. In the interest of protecting biodiversity, raw materials of animal origin must be replaced by alternative sources that respect our environment. Squalene is widely present as a component of the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable oils (i.e., olive oil, amaranth oil). Amaranth oil seems to be the key source of squalene. Amaranth grains contains 7-7.7% lipids, and these lipids are extremely valuable because of the presence of ingredients like squalene, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E as tocopherols, tocotrienols, and phytosterols, which are not seen together in other common oils. In human skin physiology, squalene is not only used as an antioxidant, moisturizer, and material for topically applied vehicle, but is also used in treating skin disorders like seborrheic dermatitis, acne, psoriasis, or atopic dermatitis. Further studies on alternative sources are needed to explore the utility of squalene for treating skin.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449131

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Squalene - a multi task link in the crossroads of cancer and aging

Author: Alvaro L. Ronco, Eduardo De Stéfani

Abstract

Since its discovery in the beginning of the XXth century, squalene has been recognized as an important link in metabolic pathways. More recently, it has been further recognized as an intermediate step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Its well known antioxidant capability, together with its ability to protect skin, improve the immune system, and modulate the lipid profile, confer a high potential to this natural substance, which is spread all across the body structure, though mainly in the epithelial tissues, and in particular the skin sebum. This review will focus mainly on its major properties, which are related to anticancer properties, the maintenance of the oxidation/antioxidation balance, and its antiaging capabilities. Although the substance was originally obtained from shark liver oil, it is currently possible to obtain useful amounts from vegetable sources like extra virgin olive oil, therefore avoiding the dependence on capturing the aforementioned animal species. Recognized as one of the key components of the Mediterranean dietary style, squalene is necessary to adequately manage oxygen and its derivatives in every cell of the body.

http://functionalfoodscenter.net/files/79949013.pdf

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Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer

Author: Chinthalapally V.Rao, Harold L.Newmark, Bandaru S.Reddy

Abstract

Epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest a cancer protective effect and/or lack of a tumor promoting effect by dietary olive oil as compared with other types of non-marine oils. Squalene, a constituent of olive oil, and a key intermediate in cholesterol synthesis may be regarded as partially responsible for the beneficial effects of olive oil, which include decreased mortality rates among populations with high olive oil consumption. Thus, in this study we have assessed the chemopreventive efficacy of squalene on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). In addition, we measured the effect of squalene on serum cholesterol levels in the rats. Male F34 rats (5 weeks old) were fed the control diet (modified AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing 1% squalene or 320 p.p.m. sulindac. Two weeks later, all animals except those in vehicle (normal saline)-treated groups were s.c. injected with AOM (15 mg/kg body wt, once weekly for 2 weeks). At 16 weeks of age, all rats were killed, colons were evaluated for ACF and serum was assayed for the cholesterol levels. As expected, dietary administration of sulindac suppressed ACF development and reduced crypt multiplicity, i.e. number of aberrant crypts/focus. Administration of dietary squalene inhibited total ACF induction and crypt multiplicity by approximately >46% (P < 0.001). Further, squalene at a level of 1% did not show any significant effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our finding that squalene significantly suppresses colonic ACF formation and crypt multiplicity strengthens the hypothesis that squalene possesses chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9498278

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Inhibition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanoneinduced lung tumorigenesis by dietary olive oil and squalene

Author: Theresa J.Smith, Guang-yu Yang, Darren N.Seril, Jie Liao, Sungbin Kim

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have suggested that frequent olive oil consumption may be a protective factor against lung cancer formation. Squalene, a characteristic compound in olive oil, is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and has been proposed to inhibit the farnesylation of ras oncoproteins. The present study investigated the effect of dietary olive oil and squalene in a mouse lung tumorigenesis model. Female A/J mice were fed AIN-76A diets containing 5% corn oil (control), 19.6% olive oil, or 2% squalene starting at 3 weeks before a single dose of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (103 mg/kg, i.p.). Animals were maintained on their respective diets throughout the study. At 16 weeks after NNK administration, 100% of the mice in the control group had lung tumors with a tumor multiplicity of 16 tumors per mouse. The olive oil and squalene diets significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the lung tumor multiplicity by 46 and 58%, respectively. The squalene diet significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lung hyperplasia by 70%. In mice fed a diet containing 2% squalene for 3 weeks, the activation of NNK was increased by 1.4- and 2.0-fold in lung and liver microsomes, respectively, but its relationship to the inhibition of carcinogenesis is not clear. These results demonstrate that dietary olive oil and squalene can effectively inhibit NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9600360

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Extraction and Purification of Squalene from Amaranthus Grain

Author: Han-Ping He, Yizhong Cai, Mei Sun, Harold Corke

Abstract

Grain amaranth has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as a natural source of squalene. Oil contents, squalene contents, and fatty acid profiles were determined in 11 genotypes of four grain amaranth species. Although the oil contents of grain amaranth were low (from 5.1% in Amaranthus tricolor to 7.7% in Amaranthus cruentus) as compared to other oil-containing grains, high concentrations of squalene were found in total lipids, ranging from 3.6% in Amaranthus hypochondriacus to 6.1% in A. tricolor. The major fatty acids in Amaranthus oil consisted of palmitic acid (19.1-23.4%), oleic acid (18.7-38.9%), and linoleic acid (36.7-55.9%). A high degree of unsaturation was observed in Amaranthus oils, with S/U ratios of 0.26-0.32. A method to isolate and purify the squalene from Amaranthus oil was developed. After the saponification of K112, the squalene content increased from 4.2% in the crude oil to 43.3% in the unsaponifiables by the removal of the saponifiables. The unsaponifiables were fractionated by silica gel column chromatography to get highly purified squalene. The squalene purity in certain fractions was as high as 98%. Combining the fractions rich in squalene gave a 94% squalene concentrate, with a yield of 90%. The structure of squalene in the purified sample was confirmed by comparison of its ultraviolet spectrum with a standard and from its nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

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Processing stability of squalene in amaranth and antioxidant potential of amaranth extract

Author: Rohan V. Tikekar, Richard D. Ludescher, Mukund V. Karwe

Abstract

The processing stability of squalene in amaranth and the antioxidant capacity of the oil-rich fraction of amaranth were studied. The processes investigated were continuous puffing and roasting. Puffing was carried out using a single screw extruder, while roasting was carried out in a convection oven. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify squalene content before and after processing. The L-ORAC method was used to study the antioxidant activity of pure squalene and lipophilic amaranth extract containing squalene. It was found that squalene was stable during all of the processing operations with a maximum loss of 12% during roasting (150 degrees C, 20 min) and no loss during puffing. The L-ORAC test showed pure squalene to be a weak antioxidant, whereas the lipophilic extract of amaranth showed higher antioxidant activity as compared to pure squalene at the same concentration, suggesting that tocotrienols and other minor ingredients also played a role as antioxidants.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18950184

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